According to Wikipedia, glass-to-metal seals are essential mechanical seals that bond glass and metal surfaces together. They play a critical role in various applications, including vacuum tubes, electric discharge tubes, light bulbs, semiconductor diodes, reed switches, and electronic component packaging.

To achieve a hermetic seal, ensuring vacuum support, excellent electrical insulation, and specialized properties like UV lamp functionality, two key factors must be considered. First, the molten glass must be capable of wetting the metal to form a secure bond. Second, the thermal expansion of the glass and metal must closely match to maintain the seal’s integrity during cooling.

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